r/AskReddit Mar 17 '22 Today I Learned 1 Silver 4 Gold 1 Helpful 8 Wholesome 13 All-Seeing Upvote 1

[Serious] Scientists of Reddit, what's something you suspect is true in your field of study but you don't have enough evidence to prove it yet? Serious Replies Only

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u/sciguy52 Mar 18 '22 Silver Gold Helpful Wholesome

Mine is in my field of cancer. Often patients treated for their cancer may have no evidence of remaining cancer at treatment completion. A not uncommon event is the cancer returns years later. The common belief is there are hidden cancer cells remaining in the body, maybe just single cells here and there that we can't detect, then they grow and the cancer returns after a few years with datectable tumors. The glaring problem with this theory is the time. For many of these cancers they are rapidly dividing cells, (some cancers grow more slow, not talking about those although this may apply), if they were missed it should not take 4 years or even 2 years for evidence of the cancer return to be detected. This just does not make sense given rapid cancer cell growth which had already spread around the body (metastasized).

For decades I have held an alternative theory (which I did not work on as part of my research due to where I worked and resources needed to do something pretty complex and expensive), and that is many of these patients are in fact cancer free and there are not hidden cancer cells. What might still exist after treatment are the pre-cancerous cells that over a couple year period develop into cancer again. That is the simple answer.

Here is a bit more complex. Cancer is not a single gene mutation event (or caused by a virus alone). Multiple key genes need to be mutated (or virus infected with subsequent gene mutations) to get what we call cancer. That cancer is derived from a pool of precancerous cells, many of which we cannot identify, or very easily identify in the patient. One cell out of that pool will get the last key mutation, then that single cell grows into a tumor. So say a tumor is 100% surgically removed, you may not see surrounding precancerous cells as they may visibly look normal and thus not removed. As mentioned cancer involves multiple gene mutations, lets say 4 key genes (it actually varies for different types) for simplicity. Those precancerous cells we can't see may have 3 of 4 needed. Now here is the thing, it takes time to acquire that extra mutation because how it works, and a few years makes a lot of sense time wise. My hunch is that these cancer reoccurrences years later from cancer free patients are actually the cancer developing again from these "primed" cells, and not some individual cancer cell hidden in the body for years then showing up as a tumor. The timing of it just makes a lot more sense.

So why has this not been shown (at least to my knowledge, haven't been following this that closely of late)? This is a hard experiment to do for a lot of reasons. You need access to cancer patients and their tissue, and you need to be able to experiment on them ethically which includes being sure you do not do additional harm to them beyond the cancer treatment. So many things you might need to do to prove this may not be ethically possible as it could hurt the patient, and other things clearly would hurt the patient and cannot be done. Another issue is being able to identify these cells using molecular techniques while the tissue is in the patient. Very hard, and again my cause harm. But these techniques may be required to identify precancerous cells which might be unidentifiable otherwise. Then conclusively proving that the returning cancer came from this route (vs the hidden cancer cell) can be very difficult. One might use a clever animal model to do this which gives you access to all tissues whenever you need it, but this is not simple either. Mice are the easiest and cheapest model for this but they only live about two years which might not be long enough for something that takes maybe 4 years. Monkeys live longer but your costs just skyrocketed for an already expensive experiment. Also depending on the model it may not actually really reflect what is going on in a patient. Always something I wished I was in a position to work on but only really could contemplate the idea.

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u/QuothTheRaven-Yikes Mar 18 '22

This is fascinating and terrifying all at once. I'm 26 years past treatment for a childhood cancer with zero recurrences so far, but I always have a fear that something might more or less set off a switch to make the cancer come back. The hidden cell idea honestly never sat right with me based on how fast cancer grows and spreads.

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u/MissPicklechips Mar 18 '22

This is really interesting!

My mother had cancer in the mid-00’s. She was told the kind of cancer she was diagnosed with had a very high 5 year recurrence rate (or whatever you all smart people call it.) She finished her treatment a few months after I found out I was pregnant with my second child. Said child is now 16. I’ve often wondered why it hasn’t come back. I’m super grateful that it hasn’t.

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u/sciguy52 Mar 18 '22

Yes that timing of 5 years or so for it to return I have seen time and time again. I kept thinking, why 5 years? That is so long. You have a hidden aggressive cancer cell in your body and it takes 5 years to make a new tumor? I don't know if my idea is right, but something is happening that is causing some cancers to take a while to show up again.

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u/redheadMInerd2 Mar 18 '22

There’s gotta be a way to make pavement more frost resistant. Civil engineering background. I always thought it was the subsoil since they check the density of the rest of the layers that make up the pavement. I live in pothole infested State.

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u/zenqt Mar 18 '22

I've heard of conductive nanotech material that can be mixed into pavement or sprayed on as a layer, making a heating element of any surface. Seems like it could be solar powered and controlled with simple programming and sensors.

It must still be cost-prohibited somehow, because it seems like a no brainer for wide scale application. Thermal expansion upon all infrastructure could be largely neutralized, saving god knows how much in maintenance, rework, accident prevention, etc.

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u/Umberlific Mar 18 '22

Graphene isn’t naturally anti microbial, certain preparation methods of graphene make it that way which is why it is hard to repeat.

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u/Important-Chicken-76 Mar 18 '22

Hi, I am working on nano-textured surfaces that promote physical anti-microbial activity and in my lit review, I believe I had read papers that compares between various graphene form of their anti microbial activity. And graphene sheets had been proven to be most effective of them all.

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u/gabtonber Mar 18 '22

Babies start crawling earlier when they have pets

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u/Zealousideal_End2330 Mar 18 '22

My mom told me I went from scooting to toddling and mostly skipped crawling because I desperately wanted nothing more than to be right next to our cat 24/7. He used to follow me around wherever I went, but as soon as I started moving on my own he would sit just out of reach and reward me with purrs and snuggles as soon as I caught up to him.

Best buds for 16 years.

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u/BouquetOfPenciIs Mar 18 '22

Your cat taught you how to walk. That's too adorable.

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u/Zealousideal_End2330 Mar 18 '22 Wholesome

He knew that as soon as I could walk we would be able to get into twice as much trouble together.

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u/[deleted] Mar 18 '22

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u/Not_A_Wendigo Mar 18 '22

That’s the sweetest thing. My baby was obsessed with the cat when she was learning to walk. The cat tolerated her presence.

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u/Zealousideal_End2330 Mar 18 '22

There is not a single picture taken inside the house of me when I was small without him in it!

My mom said he was obsessed with me in the womb and crawled right into the carrier the day they brought me home. We were basically attached at the hip until he died. Even when I got older and would be racing around the house he'd just hang out on top of something for a good view and come find me if he hadn't seen me for a bit.

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u/SDryluth Mar 18 '22

I swear I have pretty much this exact same story. My parents say that my cat was obsessed with me before I was even born, and as soon as I was born she just refused to leave me alone. She was my best friend for the first 16 years of my life.

My earliest memories are of that cat. Nearly every single picture of me taken inside included the cat. She would follow me around the house and help with whatever I was doing. I loved that cat so so much.

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u/Zealousideal_End2330 Mar 18 '22

He was 100% my first soulmate! It sounds totally cheesy, but I totally believe it.

He lived to be 19 and he was there when I was cookin' in the oven and waited until I got home from week long summer camp to snuggle and purr for a few hours and pass away in my arms.

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u/SDryluth Mar 18 '22

He was 100% my first soulmate! It sounds totally cheesy, but I totally believe it.

Oh I totally believe it too! It has been many years since she died at the old age of 21, but I still have a hard time keeping it together when I think about it. I have had other cats since, and I loved them a lot too, but man we grew up together and I still miss her quite a great deal.

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u/vizthex Mar 18 '22

I wonder if it's because they have more examples of something moving around, so they try to replicate it faster?

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u/_GanjaTheWizard_ Mar 18 '22

I would argue it's motivation more than anything. Babies are motivated by play. It's how they learn!

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u/jenguinaf Mar 18 '22

People, especially babies learn through imitation. They are most likely to imitate that which is closest to them (usually an older sibling or peer if available) and then less so with the next closest thing.

I think this is feasible because they likely relate with other ground creatures who are taken care of more than adults, ground creatures being pets, lol.

I potty trained early (15 months during the day, 2 over night) after my brother had just potty trained a few months before me. It was a perfect storm for my parents, I got chicken pox and didn’t want to wear a diaper due to itching and my brother told me I could go on the potty like he did, and as I was told that was pretty much that I was potty trained in a day. I was motivated but had a great peer model and was ready.

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u/i_am_here_again Mar 18 '22

Our dogs walking by our first kid definitely mad her roll over faster than she would have on her own. She loved watching them and would track their movements around the room.

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u/KindnessIsKey2019 Mar 18 '22 Silver

As a former math and physics major, I took meticulous notes of my son’s epileptic seizures. At one point, I added barometric readings and current weather data to standard information of date, seizure type, and seizure length in seconds. I’m convinced that low pressure weather systems increased the frequency and intensity of his epileptic seizures. During a trip to North Carolina, the area had an unusually high, stable high pressure system. He didn’t have any seizures during our time there.

My theory is that high or low pressure weather systems microscopically change the flow of fluids in the brain or other neurologically sensitive areas of the body such as the micro biome of the gut.

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u/lauroboro57 Mar 18 '22 edited Mar 18 '22

I really am interested in this one. I have epilepsy as well as chronic migraines and noticed my migraines are more frequent with pressure changes associated with weather events. Epilepsy could likely be that way too.

Edit: if anyone knows of an iPhone app to track barometric pressure and migraines please name it :)

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u/Dasha3090 Mar 18 '22

same here,have been to the dr and had many tests done to find the source of my migraines and nothing to be found..i read somewhere that barometric pressure changes can possibly be a trigger which seems to be mine in this case.

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u/knitwit3 Mar 18 '22

I have migraines, and I've noticed a strong correlation between headache days and weather changes. I've often wondered if it isn't something to do with sinuses for me. I've also known many people who had more joint pain as the weather changed.

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u/rudeprincessita Mar 18 '22

Since I was a child, anyone with migraines in my family would religiously check barometric pressure on weather forecast because they expected to get migraines if it was at a certain level. I always dismissed it as old wife's tale as there's no proof of that but now, it makes me wonder if it indeed has something to do with it.

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u/PiePerson15 Mar 18 '22 edited Mar 18 '22

I’m speculating here but I believe low pressure areas causes less oxygen to get into the blood during inspiration, which causes a person to hyperventilate to compensate for the lowered o2 levels. When they hyperventilate, excess co2 (acidic) is “blown off”, which causes the blood pH to go up temporarily (respiratory alkalosis) (until the kidneys step in and excrete more bicarb, an alkali, than usual to correct for that increase in blood pH). iirc alkalosis predisposes to seizures/ increased neuron excitability. This doesn’t happen in high pressure areas because breathing is normal and no blood alkalosis occurs.

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u/BB36O Mar 18 '22

The scientific community as a whole would be better off if publication was not the only metric of value. Allow me to explain:

Corner number one we have big name institutions (I am basing my opinion off of my experience working in a lab for Mayo Clinic). Scientists were constantly "encouraged" to publish new and interesting works. If you did not, your funding would dry up and you were at risk of losing your position as a postgrad. This lead to many scientists having no social lives outside of work because they would have multiple projects going at once just to increase their chances that one of them will be published in a prestigious journal. Now while I can understand that this "gets results", the problem falls in no scientist wanting to waste their time or money on peer review. Who wants to be the second guy to discover a cure to a disease when you can be the guy this new disease will get named after, especially if your place of work actively threatens you with termination if you do not credit their company logo in big bold print on your revolutionary cure. There is no incentive to cooperate with other scientists, review other scientists' works, or to study seemingly insignificant anomalies in human health because of how cut throat these "cutting-edge laboratories" are.

In the other corner we have publishing companies that do one of two things, 1. Pay the scientist nothing for their original work (not even help funding the research) and get all the royalties to be had from selling this work in research journals and libraries. OR 2. Charge the scientist thousands of dollars to make their work "Open-Source" so it is free for use to everyone who wants to read it. Why can they get away with these clear injustices? Because big name institutions value their scientists based on the arbitrary prestige assigned to these publishing companies and the number of publications the scientist has with those arbitrary journals. (For context why I say publishing firm prestige is arbitrary, Nature; one of the most prestigious journals out there, like a single publication with this company set a postdoc for life in her career at Mayo; was the wonderful, all-knowing, exclusive, high-quality publication firm that published Andrew Wakefield's infamous vaccine and autism "study" that was panned for his obvious manipulation of the data and use of patient opinions versus actual statistics in an abysmally small sample size.)

I cannot prove it, but I still believe if scientists were valued for the intrinsic worth of their work and not its "Wow-factor" for how it looks in publication or television, the scientific community as a whole would be better off. Information would be shared freely and easily, publication firms would not have a monopoly on knowledge, and there would be incentive for scientists to collaborate on projects to explore chemical and physiological mechanisms rather than just discover the next marketable wonder drug.

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u/AsceticAlpaca Mar 18 '22

Far more neurological processes are prion influenced than previously thought and prion therapy will be the next major breakthrough sometime in the 2030s.

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u/fergums979 Mar 18 '22

This is interesting. I don’t know much about prion diseases aside from the classic CJD/Kuru/mis-folded proteins/etc. stuff that’s taught in basic neuroscience classes. My questions are: 1) how were the prion diseases that we do know about identified?; and 2) why don’t researchers apply those methods of identification to diseases that they’re struggling to find a cause for?

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u/AsceticAlpaca Mar 18 '22 Gold

So basically most forms of dementia, e.g. Alzheimer's and then Parkinson's and Parkinson's Plus syndromes are histologically convincing to be prion based diseases.if you're on the research frontier this has been creeping up for a few years now. It's looking like more and more hard to crack chronic neurological diseases are prion based. However we've had breakthroughs in decoding prion structures, largely thanks to cryo EM techniques, which means prion therapeutics are looking more possible than ever.

To answer the second, we do. But prions were a very specific and different problem, so the key that fits them doesn't fit a lot else so far.

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u/D-jasperProbincrux3 Mar 18 '22

Stop don’t even talk about prions. I’m already terrified

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u/Ryoukugan Mar 18 '22

This is about good prions, friend prions.

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u/AlterEdward Mar 17 '22 edited Mar 17 '22 Gold Helpful Wholesome

Gut bacteria has evolved to influence our behaviour, either directly or indirectly, to crave foods that benefit it. That's why it's hard to "come off" certain foods.

Anecdotally, it's hard to give up high sugar, high fat foods, yet if you go for long enough without them, your desire for them drops massively. I believe it's because the gut flora that likes that food dies off and no longer influences your behaviour.

It's very, very hard to prove, but it seems self evident that if bacteria even had the slightest opportunity to evolve a means to do this, it would almost be a certainty.

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u/8Blackbart8 Mar 17 '22

I sometimes wonder if I don't want to give up dairy because I'm hooked on casein.

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u/Tenzalor Mar 17 '22

For me it's cheese. I'm lactose intolerant and stopping milk, cream and yogurt was easy. I've never been able to stop cheese.

Ever since I've learned there's some protein being transformed into an opioid analog (in very small quantity) in dairy products I've attributed my addiction to that. Nothing like a bit of cheese for a late night snack.

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u/cynicalspacecactus Mar 17 '22 edited Mar 18 '22

Cheese contains relatively high levels of tyramine, which is a catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine) releasing agent, which could explain why you had such a hard time coming off cheese and not other dairy products, which do not contain tyramine at comparable levels.

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u/postmodernmermaid Mar 17 '22

I thought this was becoming consensus? At least the second part of your comment anyways. This comes up a lot on several nutrition podcasts I listen to. Most nutritionists recommend high fiber food and unprocessed whole foods to feed your beneficial gut bacteria.

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u/turtle4499 Mar 17 '22

Most nutritionists recommend high fiber food and unprocessed whole foods to feed your beneficial gut bacteria.

Yea that's sorta the whole issue. People are treating a very complex problem as see this study showed it so it must be exactly how it works. You end up tons of people who use gut bacteria to treat everything from diabetes to autism.

You can go read what the main dr who pushes the gut bacteria for autism stuff also believes in. He is not a medical dr, not a biologist, not a chemist, he is a fucking Mech-E. He also believes vaccines cause autism and SWORE that it was from mercury poisoning to the point that MULTIPLE medical journals had to comment on the issue to explain how insanely different autism and mercury poisoning symptoms are. This man is the DIRECTOR OF AUTISM RESEARCH AT ASU.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_B._Adams_(professor))

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u/erwin76 Mar 17 '22

So my gut bacteria may be causing my addiction to chocolate… damn, I am severely outnumbered!

Does knowing this actually help in getting rid of such an addiction? Like, does this fact open doors to other solutions? Asking for myself :)

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u/AlterEdward Mar 17 '22

I believe that gut flora will become a massive area of study and treatment, and we will develop supplements or treatments that curb the behaviour influencing bacteria.

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u/sassycritter235 Mar 17 '22

Yes!! Please kill my sugar-loving bacteria and replace them with ones that love vegetables. I’m on a one way train to diabeetusville.

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u/[deleted] Mar 17 '22 Duck Dance

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u/TheUnblinkingEye1001 Mar 17 '22 edited Mar 17 '22

That UHT pasteurization of liquid food products leaves a barely perceptible aftertaste that only a small segment of the consumer population can detect.

Edit: I need a disclaimer that I was not referring to milk and other dairy beverages. The way the comments are shaping up I sound like somebody theorizing that people like ice cream.

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u/applesandoranges990 Mar 17 '22

people in my country often brag about never buying UHT milk because it tastes:

like dirty water

yucky

off

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u/DanishRedSausage Mar 17 '22

I tasted it for the first time in Turkey, and it tasted like old fish... Never had it since.

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u/Jesper90000 Mar 17 '22

Environmental Geologist - That’s there’s a huge amount of environmental contamination (soil, water, air) in residential areas, and rapid development is only making the problem worse. Most people in populated areas are likely very very close to known sites with dangerous contamination, and the number of unknown sites dwarfs what’s been addressed.

On top of that in the USA low income housing projects don’t need to meet as stringent environmental regulations, so a site that fails for normal residential use might still qualify for low income housing.

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u/SereniaKat Mar 17 '22

Where I live, there was a site with buried toxic waste next to a river. They were afraid it would get exposed, so they built a big shopping centre on it.

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u/horeyshetbarrs Mar 18 '22

Exact same story near where I live, but instead of a shopping center it's a huge apartment complex.

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u/MarcMaronsCat Mar 18 '22

Yep this happens all the time. Sell the land for super cheap with the stipulation that whoever develops it encases that shit in concrete and maybe paves a parking garage over it and puts shops on top of that to avoid vapor intrusion.

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u/aureliaxaurita Mar 18 '22 Helpful

Environmental chemist here (kinda), could not agree more.

https://projects.propublica.org/toxmap/ is a map of the major U.S. areas where there is an industrial plant emitting cancer-causing air pollution. Knowing this is a pretty incomplete map of one specific type of contamination is scary.

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u/faceeatingleopard Mar 17 '22

We used to have this stuff called "red dog", kind of a gravel substitute we used for side roads back in the 80s. Township would even give you a free truckload if you wanted. It's what's left over when a slate dump (coal refuse) I guess "burns" fully. Haven't seen it used in decades but that shit is STILL everywhere. Can't imagine that's too healthy.

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u/Jesper90000 Mar 18 '22

I’ve worked in a lot of areas throughout the US Midwest where coal slag from steel mills was used as fill material for all sorts of developments. It looks exactly like volcanic rock and is made in much the same way. Any developer looking for fill could go to the steel mill and load up as much as they wanted for free. I do have to say I have not seen many environmental issues related to its use since it’s a very “bound” material that doesn’t erode easily, but it’s definitely only used because it’s cost effective.

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u/Radiant-Carob3003 Mar 17 '22

Do you think this is why some unexplained cancer clusters are out there?

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u/Jesper90000 Mar 17 '22

Yes, there’s been a lot of research going on to try and show this. A notable one in the US is radon exposure if you live in the Midwest/Southwest or an area with naturally high radon levels. It’s been linked to a myriad of cancers that aren’t necessarily connected, but they’ve definitely shown that radon hot spots have much higher cancer rates compared to “normal” areas. At this point it’s such an issue that many home sales in radon prone areas require radon testing before closing. As far as chemical waste leading to cancer in surrounding areas you can look up Love Canal in New York or Libby Montana for some good examples of when this has happened. For another ongoing problem you can also look at groundwater contamination in West Virginia and Pennsylvania related to natural gas production/drilling fluid disposal.

A massive issue with the research is trying to identify people who have been exposed and developed illnesses. Unfortunately these people are usually not well off, so their ability to seek care or even report their symptoms can be extremely difficult. And if they are seriously I’ll they may die before anything is noticed or linked. Thankfully more work is being done and it’s getting some attention, but it’s not enough.

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u/saintErnest Mar 18 '22

I worked in cancer informatics and worked with an MD who told me he suspected radon exposure causes a lot of lung cancer, and we would continue to see never-smokers get cancer at increasing rates. Kinda scary, since it's something you can't really control for or afford to escape, like you said.

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u/Additional-Cheetah88 Mar 18 '22

Certified in radon analytics over here. Radon is absolutely a significant risk factor for lung cancer. I also do home inspections. The amount of poorly executed radon tests I see in conjunction with real estate transactions is ridiculous. Testing and mitigation is often simple and won’t break the bank

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u/Jesper90000 Mar 18 '22

A family friend died of lung cancer a few months ago having never smoked a cigarette in her life. She was the model health guru for decades. 2 years from diagnosis to death and radon exposure is highly suspected.

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u/[deleted] Mar 17 '22

There are an obscene amount of pollutants we've been exposed to. Not just ground water poisoning from industrial waste, which still happens and many areas have never been cleaned up, but the very products we use are often harming us. We're still using teflon despite knowing the hazard of ptfes. To identify why any specific region has a higher cancer incidence would require an analysis of the local environmental conditions and historical industry pollutants.

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u/AquariiBETA Mar 18 '22

Microbiologist — our only hope in being able to fight of total antibiotic resistance is to develop bacteriophages (viruses that eat/destroy bacteria) that we can use and prescribe in place of existing antibiotics

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u/Majirra Mar 18 '22

I’m still boggled as to why the US doesn’t use bacteriophage therapy as a last resort.

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u/MyV_is_for_Valinor Mar 18 '22

Phages can go astray and it’s one of the reasons we can’t effectively treat people with them yet. Long story short, phages can sometimes become incorporated into the bacterial dna and actually becomes a virulence factor. (Think toxin secretion in cholera, shiga, diptheria, E.coli, and salmonella) they can’t be effectively used (yet) because theres not a ways to know if they will cause bacteria to change and become more deadly accidentally.

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u/Arndt3002 Mar 18 '22

I know this could work, but this seems to be the modern equivalent of introducing predatory invasive species.

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u/poopbuttmcfarts Mar 18 '22

psych research student --- I hope to study mild/moderate depression and anxiety as responses to environment rather than strictly biological and cognitive anomalies. The circumstances that appear to make monkeys behave anxiously/depressed are the same ones that appear to make us appear anxious/depressed. I hope to use a novel multidisciplinary approach in which primatology, sociology, and psychology are married to create a new perspective and potentially meaningful lens for which to understand and maybe even treat mild depression.

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u/DannyBright Mar 18 '22 edited Mar 18 '22

While not in the Paleontology field, I am going into biology and I believe that T. rex may have had at least one other related species. Think about it, the genus Tyrannosaurus existed for at least 2 million years which I think is plenty of time for speciation to occur. The genus Homo existed for around that same amount of time and we currently have nine species documented. If anything it’d be wierder if T. rex was the only species in its genus the whole time.

Unfortunately, with only bones to work with it’s hard to properly classify separate species as subtle changes can just as easily be chalked up to individual differences.

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u/PaintsWithSmegma Mar 17 '22 Silver Gold Helpful

ECMO for refractory v-tach / v-fib in pre-hospital cardiac arrest while undergoing cardiac catheterization will substantially increase survival rates with normal neurological function.

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u/Beowulf923 Mar 17 '22

Already published

D. Yannopoulos, J. Bartos, G. Raveendran, et al. Advanced reperfusion strategies for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and refractory ventricular fibrillation (ARREST): a phase 2, single centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial Lancet., 396 (2020), pp. 1807-1816,

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u/PaintsWithSmegma Mar 17 '22

Dr. Yannopoulos is a super interesting guy. The hard part is getting the process implemented on a sustainable and logistical level.

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u/onarainyafternoon Mar 17 '22

Can you explain this? I'm not sure I understand.

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u/PaintsWithSmegma Mar 17 '22 Silver Helpful Wholesome All-Seeing Upvote Bravo Grande! Big Brain Time

Sure. * ECMO is a heart lung bypass machine. It mechanically oxygenates your blood and pumps it back into your body.

  • V-TACH / V-FIB at its most basic a pulseless heart rhythm where there is electrical activity but no mechanical activity. There are many reasons for but it's the cardiac rhythm they shock on TV.

  • cardiac cath an artery in your heart is blocked so they feed a wire into your heart arteries, inflate a balloon and clear the blockage.

So without going too far off the rails here there are a lot of reasons someone can go into cardiac arrest. This means your heart has stopped beating, but often it's because of a blockage of a heart artery.

This is fixed with a cardiac cath but is typically only done if a person has a mechanical heart beat. So if you have a heart attack and loose a pulse because of a blockadge most hospitals won't preformed the cath unless they can do CPR, give you drugs, shock you and get a pulse back. Typically because you need the respiratory and circulatory system to support the brain.

Now with ECMO it bypasses the heart and lungs and keeps the brain functioning. This buys you time to fix the heart problem with a cath.

So traditional cardiac arrest survival rates are low. Walking away without a hypoxic brain injury is like winning the lottery.

The few places that have been doing this process have reported substantial increases. I suspect if the logistics can be worked out it'll be the gold standard of care within 20 years.

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u/AnythingButPredictab Mar 17 '22 Take My Energy

I wish I had a gold award to give it to you.

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u/battlingjason Mar 17 '22

If only the budget would allow for it! Also the common excuse of "just transport to the hospital, you'll be there quicker than getting that set up." Well yea, but if it's already going on arrival, you're still saving time.

I'd love to have POCUS on my truck, too. Is that really a hemo/pneumo or are my ears broken? Are they bleeding in their belly? Where?

Dang budgets.

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u/and-hereitcomes Mar 17 '22

yes! Also, routine ECMO use for OOH cardiac arrest during LHC is the straw that breaks the crippled camel’s back. Cool idea tho.

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u/PaintsWithSmegma Mar 17 '22

Honestly, just routinely cathing patients on ECMO would be a huge step. There's a hospital in Minneapolis that had a mobile cath lab and ECMO set up for a study but then covid happened.

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u/leftier_than_thou_2 Mar 18 '22

Cell biologist: we spend way too much money on cancer research and not enough on basic research and have for decades.

Despite that it's finally working and the wave of immuno oncology drugs that are in clinical testing now will significantly reduce deaths from cancer.

We could have had this 30 years ago if we had spent a ton on basic research and not convinced ourselves we were about to beat cancer in the 70's.

We might be fooling ourselves again, I've not been working on cancer directly for too long. Previously though it seemed like everyone was convinced we were about to cure cancer then it fizzled. This time it seems like few people expect cancer to be cured despite real breakthroughs.

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u/thelanguagelizard Mar 18 '22 edited Mar 18 '22

Biochem student: literally every paper I have read in my degree involving cell signalling has tried to tie itself into cancer research in some way even when it is highly theoretical. It makes sense in terms of funding but damn the misdirection of energy and time is sad to see

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u/cheesecake_413 Mar 18 '22

My undergrad degree was biomedical genetics. The running joke was, whenever you needed to justify a piece of research, the answer was "cancer"

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u/taway0112358 Mar 17 '22

The semi-classical theory of gravitation, put forth by Moller and Rosenfeld in 1960s and further refined by physicists since then, is an incorrect theory of quantum gravitation. It's seductive because it marries Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity (which we know is true for the large) with quantum mechanics (which we know is true for the small) in a very natural, intuitive way.

To be fair, nobody believes it (I think), but so far, nobody has been able to rule it out, either.

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u/The_Clarence Mar 17 '22

What are the implications of it being incorrect?

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u/taway0112358 Mar 17 '22 Shocked

It would be a good thing.

Most people (and that includes physicists who don't do quantum gravity for a living) believe there are no theories of quantum gravity, but nothing could be further from the truth. Not only do we have quantum gravity theories, the truth is, we have waaaay too many of them!

We're at a point in time where theory is far, far, far ahead of experiment. We don't know how to disprove any of the quantum gravity theories we already have. Engineering technology simply hasn't caught up to that yet, and it looks like it'll be a long time before it does.

Until that happens, we have a good chunk of brainy high energy physicists spending their time on a host of different theories (e.g. string theory), basically working their entire lives on something which may not be even remotely true. That would be my worst nightmare.

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u/SuperEminemHaze Mar 17 '22

That’s a really interesting point re: spending your whole life trying to figure out something that may not be true. Never thought about that before.

Btw, why is it that we can’t disprove any of the theories? I am a bit of a layman; my knowledge extends to watching Cosmos and loving science but it’s not my profession.

When watching Cosmos, I always found it fascinating how so many of science’s greatest discoveries where found by really simple experiments, and often by accident. Is it a case that we’ve tried every “simple” experiment and had no results; that all experiments require currently non-existent technology; or that we’ve just not had a lucky accident any time recently? Thanks

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u/Gladix Mar 17 '22 Silver Gold

Btw, why is it that we can’t disprove any of the theories?

So, people often ask whether mathematics is something we invented or something that we discovered. A concept about which philosophers constantly argue. We basically took a physical reality: You take a stone and you add another stone. And as a result, you have two stones. We then divorced the actual reality from the concept 1+1=2. And then we created numerous theories that are entirely based on that one equation. If 1+1=2 works with stones, then surely a2 + b2 = c2 works with triangles.

Now, over time these concepts were refined to the point that we could mathematically describe things that are (or were) impossible to find in nature but still made sense. We were so good at it that we started noticing that some of the discoveries we made were "foretold" by mathematics in the past. Or in other words, by describing the world via mathematics, we noticed patterns from which we inferred new mathematical realities, that happened to correlate to real-world objects or concepts. Some of the more famous ones are the prediction of Neptune, radio waves, antimatter, neutrinos, black holes, gravitational waves, higgs boson, etc...

So how come we can't prove or disprove some theories? Let's return back to the discovery of Neptune. Imagine you are Urban Le Verrier back in 1845 and you predict that an unknown planet exists due to observing all kinds of irregularities that couldn't be explained by Newton's law of universal gravitation, but could be however explained by an unknown planet that has an 165-year orbit around the sun. And right now, according to your calculations, the planet is just behind the sun. So how will you prove it's there? What kind of 1800s technology you will use to prove your theory?

None right? A telescope is useless to you if the planet is hiding behind the sun and you have no ideas how to make rockets or satellites that will send footage back to Earth. There is literally nothing you could do to prove your theory. You just have to wait it out until the planet ccomes out right? Luckily for Le Verrier, that happened in 1846, and not after he died. Many of the current theories are similar, but instead of waiting for the planet to show itself, we are waiting for the technology to catch up. We don't have a Dyson sphere worth of energy for example to confirm various fusion theories.

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u/SuperEminemHaze Mar 17 '22

That’s quite an interesting concept for philosophers to argue over. Really makes sense in both ways too.

Never knew that about Neptune. What a cool story. Let’s hope many scientists get the same kick as Le Verrier and find their discoveries in their lifetimes too

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u/Gladix Mar 18 '22

Yep. At this point, we are veritable centuries ahead of the curve in some areas. Hell, we were centuries ahead of the curve for a long, looking time. Why do you think we have numbers called "imaginary", it's because people made fun of them. These numbers were thought to be impossible, purely imaginary. But whoops, then we found out electricity is a thing and is perfectly described by imaginary numbers.

For some reason this just keeps happening in math.

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u/BlitzAceSamy Mar 18 '22

Wait, imaginary numbers are the square root of negative numbers, right? How do they describe electricity?

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u/Arndt3002 Mar 18 '22

Imaginary numbers can describe oscillatory motion (see Euler's formula). Inductors and other components that are used in electrical circuits, behave in an oscillatory way as the change in current is related to the current in the system. So, imaginary numbers can be a convenient way to model oscillatory behavior in general and, in particular, circuits.

All of this has to do with exponential functions and their behavior, and imaginary numbers are a good way of representing oscillation using exponential functions.

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u/taway0112358 Mar 17 '22

Full disclosure. I finished a PhD in physics at UC (my dissertation was on quantum gravity, but that was about 15 years ago. I quit that lifestyle and got a proper job on Wall Street, so I'm no longer a physicist.

One of my best friends is a string theorist. He works night and day. Seriously. It's rare to see anyone that dedicated. I've never had the heart to ask him what he'd do if string theory was ever shown to be false. He got his PhD in ... 2004? 2003? So he's been at this game for almost 20 years. I'd have a heart attack!

We can't disprove them because engineering hasn't caught up to it yet. For example, there's a paper out there that proposes a test for semi-classical gravitation theory. Basically, you throw a virus at a diffraction grating, and if the resulting pattern exhibits this one trait, the theory is false. If the resulting pattern does not exhibit that trait, the theory may or may not be true.

The problem is, we don't know how to throw viruses at a diffraction grating yet. The grating's spacing has to be SO thin for an object as humongously massive as a virus, that we just can't make the grating small enough using current technology. We don't know how to heat up a virus to the temperatures required to spit it out in a more or less straight line towards the grating. We don't know how to observe the resulting pattern of the grating. Well, the Israeli's might've solved some of these problems, but not all of them. Not yet.

Also, there's a matter of funding. So you're a government official in charge of dolling out money. A guy approaches you with the experiment I just mentioned. He also tells you that no physicist on the face of the Earth believes in the theory to begin with. Would you give him the 10 million to perform the experiment to test the falseness (not the validity, mind you -- just the falseness) of a theory that nobody believes? A lot of people wouldn't. There's so many other good topics to invest in!

Basically, in order to test our current theories, we need to build things that we currently can't build from an engineering standpoint.

Last paragraph is a good observation. You're right. We've done experiments that require engineering on the scale of a molecule, up to the scale of a planet. To test our "fringe" theories, we need to do experiments much smaller, much faster, much fainter. Basically, on a scale that humans don't really have a whole lot of experience with. Engineering technology needs to catch up so we can build machines and devices on a scale that we simply can't reach yet.

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u/KvA93 Mar 18 '22

Exposure to environmental pollutants and flame retardants increases your risk for diabetes. Also women are more affected by acute high dose exposures whereas men are more susceptible with chronic low dose exposure.

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u/midnightpatches Mar 18 '22 Helpful

I’m not sure if this really fits but, intergenerational trauma.

We know that physical and psychological stress in one generation (whether it be war, rape, genocide, alcoholism, drug use, growing up in the system, I could go on forever) can “pass on” to the next generation. But, we don’t really know how. Heritable epigenomic changes has been the first proposal.

But no one has done this specific research. My supervisor demonstrated a change in mitochondrial DNA copy number, resulting in epigenomic changes in regions of the genome associated with disease. Epigenomic changes mean that the expression of the underlying genes can be altered. This can result in disease.

Usually as a result of intergenerational trauma, people suffer more health repurcussions, and no one could really explain why. I want to explain why on the genetic level. I think I’m on the right path and I’m excited!

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u/NefariousnessAny2464 Mar 18 '22

To add to this, the cells that formed you were present inside your grandmother, which almost certainly has an influence. We see higher rates of eating disorders in children/grandchildren those that have survived famine, this is present in holocaust survivors.

Additionally, PTSD behaviours are more likely in people whose grandparents have gone through stress which could explain in part the Boomer erratic behaviour, their cells developed under high cortisol levels and rations.

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u/Stlieutenantprincess Mar 18 '22

We see higher rates of eating disorders in children/grandchildren those that have survived famine, this is present in holocaust survivors.

This makes me wonder how the human race has been changed by the wide reaching trauma of WW1 and WW2 in general.

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u/Throwaway47321 Mar 18 '22

WW1 and WW2 in general.

It’s probably a lot closer to what people looked like through the majority of human history unfortunately.

When you look back through history it seems like there was always some mass war/genocide happening on top of just being one bad drought away from actual famine.

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u/mr_robototoro Mar 17 '22

As an early career ecologist I suspect that the results of many experiments in my field would not stand up to replication. There's a huge bias toward "positive results" - those which support your hypothesis - and you are extremely disincentivized from research that is not seen as novel. This is doubly true for those of us without tenure yet, because we need to be seen as at the cutting edge of our field to get a job in the first place.

Meta-analyses help separate the signal from the noise a bit, but I suspect there's still a field-wide confirmation bias

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u/chopin_fan Mar 18 '22

I think this is pretty well accepted as a problem in almost all research fields. Could definitely be more a problem in some fields as compared to others though.

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u/asoiahats Mar 17 '22

This is a really interesting question. Haven’t seen something like that on this sub for a long time.

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u/onarainyafternoon Mar 17 '22 Silver Helpful

Yeah! It's been probably five years since I've seen this question actually gain any traction. I've posted it a number of times but it just gets downvoted everytime. Askreddit just wants to ask horny questions instead haha

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u/davga Mar 18 '22

I just wanna take this time to express my appreciation for such a fascinating, educational r/AskReddit thread. It's the golden nugget in the wall of shitposts that this subreddit lately feels like 💙

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u/Roland--DeschainPUBG Mar 18 '22

PhD in neuroscience here. Most experiments in my field are biased because they focus only on the brain and forget about external influences on the body and in the world.

Search for "brain in a vat" theory

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u/DrRexMorman Mar 17 '22

Digital communities have replicated the authority, structure, and meaning-making functions of religious communities without their physicality.

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u/TheThobes Mar 17 '22

When I was in college I took several religion courses on the new testament and early Christianity. When my professor explained how early Christians would argue over interpretations of the events and interpretations of ministry, referenced the Torah and other Jewish texts for supporting arguments, wrote their own scriptures, and then eventually consolidated those scriptures into a canon (the Bible), my first thought was "oh that sounds an awful lot online Fandoms writing and arguing over fanfic"

I don't mean that as a slight against either religions of Fandoms. It's a very similar process of using established material to grapple with ambiguous questions and then building up some kind of community accepted body of knowledge, creating new material, and repeating the process. (See star wars fans and the varying tiers of "canon-ness" of EU material)

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u/ArcadiaPlanitia Mar 18 '22

The bizarre little patterns and hierarchies that evolve out of hardcore, insular fandom spaces are so fascinating to me. Sometimes you can literally watch it in real-time as the terminology becomes less and less comprehensible to outsiders, the group drifts further and further away from the mainstream, and the members become more and more obsessive about whatever it is that links them. Like that one Harry Potter Livejournal group that became a straight-up cult of women who worshipped Snape as a deity. You could literally see the schisms unfold as they argued over different aspects of Snape.

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u/TheThobes Mar 18 '22

Oh yeah, the terminology part is definitely a thing. The community develops a certain vocabulary so people consciously or unconsciously use that vocabulary to signify their status in the in-group.

r/PrequelMemes and r/LotrMemes have legitimately ruined my vocabulary

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u/ArcadiaPlanitia Mar 18 '22

The relationship and parenting subs are rife with that, too. You can tell that r/stepparents is a really insular echo chamber because half the posts are like “my DH’s STBX doesn’t want us to give the SD’s room to our LO. I know I was the AP but she doesn’t have to be such a HCBM, they were in a DB LTR anyway. We’re TTC again, maybe SD should just go EOWE? She has mini-wife syndrome, I think we should try for a new CO.” And everyone in the comments is like “omg yes, girl! nacho! nacho!”

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u/RabbitEarsOn Mar 18 '22

you know for a while ive thought of it as the bible famdom in passing

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u/Galileo009 Mar 18 '22

I couldn't agree more. Played EVE Online for 7 years, the kind of social realism on display there was breathtaking. Thousands of people organized into guilds, guilds into alliances, and alliances into coalitions so large that they don't even exist as a level of structure within the game itself. Only as a concept within with community. These entities fight nearly endless virtual wars for resources and ideological dominance. Groups big enough and motivated enough spontaneous created their own bureaucracy, economic management, taxation, industrial planning, military strategy, propaganda, and even espionage to aid that.

I'm convinced that people have the same ability to self-organize culturally and societally in digital environments as they do the real world. People get offended by the idea that it could replicate the same meaning as the real thing, but in my experience any medium that allows for that level of communication can become like the real world. The things we want stay the same, and in a digital space we just create other ways to satisfy the same desire for higher meaning.

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u/frogriverboat Mar 17 '22

as a digital sociologist I love this theory

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u/Mr_P_scientist Mar 18 '22

That chronic fatigue syndrome is caused by a bacterial phage which attacks the mitochondria

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u/Crafty_Ad_8081 Mar 18 '22

This is interesting.

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u/Scherzkeks Mar 18 '22 Wholesome Bravo Grande!

Oh no! Not the powerhouse of the cell?!

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u/sourcreamus Mar 17 '22

MS can be cured with fecal transplants.

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u/EveryVehicle1325 Mar 17 '22

I've recently come across papers reporting that patients who've undergone FMT have had their symptoms improve and become stable! The gut microbiome is such an amazing thing, I'm so glad it's starting to finally get the attention it deserves!

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u/Dr_SnM Mar 18 '22 Silver Wholesome

I'm a fecal donor.

Proud to be making a difference, and getting paid to shit

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u/[deleted] Mar 18 '22 Gold Helpful

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u/onarainyafternoon Mar 17 '22

Can you expand on that a little?

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u/sourcreamus Mar 17 '22

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the gut biome can somehow trigger ms symptoms and that fecal transplants can fix that. Currently it is mostly used to treat c. Dif infection but there are indications it could do much more.

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u/R3quiemdream Mar 17 '22 edited Mar 18 '22

Remote sensing scientist here, we’ve probably reached the limit of EO space borne spectrometers and thermal imagery. Not enough energy at these wavelengths to increase image resolution at the far infrared and thermal channels. Maybe with machine learning and airborne imagery we can sharpen images. However, it’ll be hard to use those products for any meaningful analysis.

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u/Andromeda321 Mar 18 '22 edited Mar 18 '22

Astronomer here! You don’t literally have infinite density (or mass) inside a black hole- I don’t think anyone really thinks that. Instead you have the laws of general relativity no longer work when you get a black hole where mass is compressed into such a tiny area. The devil is in the details though and no one knows how this alternative might work.

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u/bennggg Mar 18 '22

Ocean plastic will become an integral and necessary part of the food chain for future organisms

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u/Yusi-D-Jordan Mar 18 '22

That’s even minor differences in how you compress and EQ a singer or rapper’s vocals in a song can literally affect the emotional reaction a listener has when hearing the song.

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u/DaveTheNotecard Mar 18 '22

My Psycho-Acoustics professor would agree with you.

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u/Reaper2256 Mar 18 '22

I’d agree with this. I mean, production techniques and mix quality (from the coziness of lo-fi music, all the way up to that dopamine frisson hit from a Steely Dan record) can drastically alter the style and mood of a song without even touching a note. I think in a lot of cases timbre is of equal importance if not even MORE important than the actual composition. Someone doing covers of old Delta Blues recordings just won’t hit the same as the original takes did, because they’re lacking the eeriness of the primitive recordings. It’s a similar feeling with old vocal jazz records. The Caretaker has made an entire career out of taking Big Band records and mixing them into an entirely different context, so that a song that originally wouldn’t sound out of place at an Olive Garden is traumatizing people.

I can run myself into the ground during my mixing process because of how overwhelming the options tend to be. You can completely shift the emotion of a vocal just by boosting 3k or cutting 500hz. And as far as compression goes, I almost exclusively use it as a tool for coloration and mood. Volume control is part of it, but when someone mortgages their house for a Fairchild it’s not because their vocalist was too dynamic, lol. I don’t know of many people who use compression purely for its intended purpose. Once you throw compression on a raw track it morphs into something else entirely, a soft vocal can sound super aggressive, a quiet drum kit can sound monstrous. Not to mention using compression to create a vintage mood or a lo-fi sound, timbrally (idk if that’s a word) compression is possibly the single most versatile tool around, 2nd maybe to EQ.

I’ve thought about this theory a lot, I’m glad someone else feels the same way lol

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u/Narfu187 Mar 17 '22

The octane rating you see at the gas station (87, 89, 91, etc) can vary in actuality much more than you or even the regulators think. There are so many factors that go into rating gasoline octane, and virtually every lab doesn't take them all into account, which creates massive variability.

Even an EPA lab where they verify the fuel is untrustworthy. I can promise you they are not considering all the factors they should be, and the reason they don't is because the allowable variability of gasoline octane is so large.

You're not filling up with 87, you're probably filling up with 85.4, or 88.3.

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u/twitch68 Mar 18 '22

That faecal transplants (used for Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis) should be used in conjunction with all cancer treatments, to lessen the damage to the gut biome. They are discovering the importance of gut biome to the functioning of the whole body. My theory is this might assist in managing side effects and recovery.

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u/chessandkey Mar 18 '22 Silver Helpful Wholesome

Treating students more like adults/people will cause them to begin to develop into adults more quickly.

A lot of teachers that I've worked with/talked to treat students like a subclass of humans who are expected to give respect but not receive it. I treat my students like collegues and I end up getting a lot more output and learning from them.

I have collegues who shame them when they don't do what they think is right. When my students act like stupid kids I tell them, "Of course you did that. You're kids. Kids act like stupid kids." and usually after those conversations they start to act more like adults. I think it's because instead of shaming their behavior, I justify their behavior as a maturity and show them that if they grow in maturity they'll be more deserving of the benefits of maturity.

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u/Forever_Man Mar 18 '22

I think we're also too strict in general. As a policy, I let my students redo their quizzes and tests at least twice. In the real world, you don't screw up and move on. You're expected to learn from your mistakes and fix them

But in general treat students like people.

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u/Turtledonuts Mar 18 '22 edited Mar 18 '22

The oceans are incredibly, catastrophically, incomprehensibly fucked. We’ve been using the oceans at a high level for centuries, and our awareness of the impact on the oceans has come far too late. We just don’t have enough data from before industrialization to understand what we’ve done.

edit: a clarification: the total biomass in the oceans is decreased significantly. Its like if we had been hunting every animal in every forest for 1000 years instead of ranching cows and stuff, started doing so industrially 100 years ago, and started worrying about the impact 50 years ago.

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u/Ryoukugan Mar 18 '22

I don't think anyone with sense doubts that, even outside of relevant fields.

Once the ocean is sufficiently fucked, so are we.

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u/Gloopycube13 Mar 18 '22

This is something that I really struggled with during my final year of biology and chem during year 13. It devastates me that such a fucking incredible and unique ecosystem is getting obliterated and I can't do a single thing.

And the majority of people have almost no clue what's going on? I'm seriously disappointed with us, as a species and as people. Kinda makes me lose hope :/

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u/[deleted] Mar 18 '22

My biologist roommate years ago said the same thing about bugs, that there’s less of them every year. What’s strange is that his research was funded by the oil and gas industry.

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u/Insanity_Pills Mar 18 '22

The difference in the amount of insects and bugs you can see in the world over even just the last 10 years is astounding

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u/rheetkd Mar 18 '22

i remember driving at night was insane because my car would get COVERED in bugs. Now I don't really get any bug splatter while driving night or day.

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u/Ryoukugan Mar 18 '22

They want to know how long they can keep making a profit.

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u/FerociousPancake Mar 18 '22

Breaks my heart to see all of the colorful corals die out :(

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u/Ryoukugan Mar 18 '22

Today the corals, tomorrow us.

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u/InvictaBlade Mar 18 '22

Crysophere Remote Sensing - We've been seriously overestimating the volume of sea ice using radar altimeters. We pretend we know how thick the sea ice is because we think CS-2 bounces off the snow-ice interface. But that interface doesn't exist and even if it did, the radar doesn't return from there. It just randomly bounces back from inhomogeneities in the snowpack.

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u/GrandMasterCheddar Mar 17 '22

I’ve read more answers here than any thread ever, I really hope it gains more traction.

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u/MabelUniverse Mar 18 '22

Same here, and it feels good. Much more enlightening than my usual Reddit fare…

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u/discoturtle1129 Mar 18 '22

Buzzfeed must be on a company retreat today

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u/drumthumper001 Mar 18 '22

That deficits in cognition, language and auditory processing cannot be separated to determine subjective listening difficulties or poor performance on auditory processing tests.

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u/OffersVodka Mar 18 '22 Ally

Don't mind me just here for the neuroscientist to tell me they fully believe spinal cord injury is repairable even if chronic.

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u/loafoveryonder Mar 18 '22

I'm an undergrad but I feel like someone will figure something out with finagling stem cells eventually. There's tons of money in nerve regeneration research. What kind of injury do you have?

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u/dorisfrench Mar 17 '22

Plants might be sentient, a bit.

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u/___throwitallaway Mar 17 '22

Can you elaborate a bit why you think this? I recently read about a plant that can see. Crazy

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u/Shroomyx Mar 17 '22

It's already proven that plants can "see" if other plants grow around them. That's mainly because the absorbed light has different wavelengths for plants that grow under bigger plants (more green). Plants then adapt by increased elongation of shoots to gain height faster for competition reasons. Plants that don't compete about light may grow more horizontal than vertical.

Is that what you meant?

Off-topic fun fact: Some "dead" tree stumps are kempt alive through symbiotic partners for years even without leaves. This may be beneficial because the act as junction for symbiotic networks between many different species.

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u/___throwitallaway Mar 17 '22

No I meant a more specific type of vision found in Boquila trifoliolata, which apparently 'successfully mimicked plastic vines and artificial plants'. I don't think it's known currently how it does that but it really amazes me.

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u/alittlebitsarcastic Mar 18 '22

Women can smell and taste sour milk much sooner than men. Can’t explain it but I know it’s true.

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u/JBredditaccount Mar 18 '22

This is true. The particles they can detect in parts per million is absolutely insane. Scientists think they developed better taste/smell because it kept their kids alive.

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u/MoiJaimeLesCrepes Mar 18 '22

what about pregnant women, too? I hear that they are extra sensitive to smells and tastes, and that this may be in order to tell when they would ingest something that has gone bad.

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u/Meatbot_Prime Mar 17 '22

The Riemann Hypothesis looks like it's true, but nobody has proven it yet. Do so, and a million bucks is yours. Unless you're Perelman and you turn it down!

https://www.claymath.org/millennium-problems/riemann-hypothesis

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u/drfuzzysama Mar 18 '22

The milk protein casein causes a allergic response in the immune system that interferes with the bodies homeostasis in 30% of people causing issues with energy level mental health and normal bodily function

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u/jigsawjamie Mar 18 '22

Hairstylist here. I don't think that box color from grocery stores are really that bad. Some people have been doing it for years and it works for them. I just give then cuts and they are happy and look good.

Also it's unfair for people in my guild to hate on box color when it's a cheaper option for alot of struggling families currently.

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u/GhostlyPandaMD Mar 18 '22

Cannabis, more specifically Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may serve to have a protective effect on insulin sensitivity.

If we can prove this in the next couple of years, it could have major implications towards the different ways we can treat/manage diabetes and hopefully have less dependence on insulin.

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u/Krisasaurus_Rex Mar 18 '22

So much archaeology is buried underwater but I can't get enough funding to prove it

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u/ctesibius Mar 18 '22

COVID deaths are higher than most estimates, due to shortening of lives by only a month or so in some people.

While I do have a doctorate in applied physics, this comes from one of my other jobs, taking funerals. During a lockdown event, my group sees demand go up by about a factor of three vs normal background demand. That is expected. What is unexpected is that it falls to about 50% of background after lockdown, implying that about a quarter of the excess deaths were people who would have died within the next month. As I understand it, the year on year comparison usually used to estimated excess deaths from COVID is unlikely to show this short term impact, hence I think that overall COVID death rates are probably underestimated by about a quarter.

A few specifics:

  • This is in the UK
  • Peak demand was about 40 funerals per month in our group. n is not great for physicists, but not out of place for small medical studies
  • I can’t just ask what people died of. Most families don’t know it was COVID, but the 3x rise in funerals clearly shows most of them were due to COVID.

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u/shegostan Mar 18 '22

This is fascinating! You’re probably right that the 3x rise in funerals shows that most of the deaths were due to COVID, but some of this could be correlation and not causation. For example, heart attack deaths have also increased in the US as the pandemic has raged on. I don’t know if there’s been research on this, but I don’t think that’s because of COVID, but because people are more hesitant to go to the hospital during a pandemic, so they ignore symptoms they otherwise might not have. So, obviously some (if not most) of the deaths you’re seeing are due to COVID, but some could also be associated with the negative effects of having to quarantine (like being sedentary, for example).

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u/Relative-Language-55 Mar 18 '22

There is a direct correlation of arms, legs, etc “falling asleep” and nightmares. As someone who sleeps on their hands, I’ve noticed that whenever I wake up with a limb asleep I had a nightmare before. I told my wife and friends to pay attention to this and they’ve all reported back the same. I don’t believe it would be ethical to purposely cause this is anyone else to test this theory, but it fascinates me. The interruption of the blow flow must play some role.

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u/A_ChadwickButMore Mar 17 '22 edited Mar 18 '22

Melanism exists in mountain lions. I was driving and looked down a dirt road & saw a black animal run across it briefly. It was deer sized, black like a black bear, and had a long tail. Too big to be a dog. There is no recorded instance of melanistic mountain lions but I want to start looking for them.

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u/Xhirrien Mar 17 '22

I mean it exists in most big cats, and is super prevalent in some panthers, so totally plausible!

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u/SixethJerzathon Mar 18 '22

Chemist here. If scientists got paid more and management types knew how to plan work more efficiently, we'd cure fucking everything. But we aren't paid enough and mgmt doesn't care as long as they get paid to sit around. So bench scientists just fart around finishing projects here and there, sometimes making a mad dash at the last possible minute to get data for a deadline, but mostly just surfing the web and drinking coffee.

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u/SirBlackselot Mar 18 '22

This is so accurate and sad it hurts. One of the worst things about STEM is realizing no one actually wants to cure everything, they give funding to low for what you need to do.

Plus with the lack of pay many pivot into other roles like quants.

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u/boxdkittens Mar 18 '22

There is no such thing as sustainable withdrawals from an aquifer to support commercial agriculture. Installing wells in some "3rd world" country (as people like to call them) to promote agriculture is just setting them up for a groundwater crises 100 or so years from now like the one the US is going to be dealing with soon. Northern HPA is doing ok because of a high recharge zone but central and southern HPA arent looking so hot.

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u/Bonbonnibles Mar 18 '22

I guess it depends on how quickly the aquifer recharges, but none of them recharge quickly enough to appease a concentration of large commercial farms.

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u/Haebak Mar 17 '22 edited Mar 17 '22 Silver Gold Helpful

Neurodiversities are an expression of social evolution and by trying to get neurodivergent people to be "normal" we're shooting ourselves in the foot.

If someone is interested, I can explain further, but I think I came into the post way too late.

Edit: I added it in a comment below, but I'll copy it here in case it gets lost.

Millions years ago, organisms went from unicellular to multicellular by having cells join and work together spliting tasks. Eventually the system was so complex that today's human's neurons, for example, can't feed themselves. They have to depend on other cells to help them do basic tasks. Your body is so complex that if some cells stop doing their work, the whole system collapses and you die.

So, if you look at society now, we work like this. Some people farm food, others transmit information, others work as society's immune system, and that have allowed us to grow and turn more complex. Basically, evolve. Society is now working as a multicellular organism because we have split tasks.

Now, neurodiverse people are notorious for not being able to do some very basic things, but they excel at others. Forcing them to act "normal" and do tasks they can't and someone else could do for them is wasting their specific potential. Hawkings wasn't neurodiverse, but I like to use his disability as an example: thanks to all the people that worked hard to keep him alive and allowed him the technology to communicate, we got to benefit from his incredible mind. If we had judged him as a burden to society because he couldn't tie his own shoes, we would have lost all his knowledge.

By forcing neurodiverse or disable people to perform normality (mask) instead of giving them help to thrieve as they are, society is wasting their potential and slowing our social evolution. Diversity is a necessity for our evolution.

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u/ShadooTH Mar 18 '22

I’ve always had this kind of similar thought as an autistic person. Like, yeah, I shouldn’t use autism as an excuse, and I should try not to rely on special attention or needs…

…but at the same time, I literally can’t do anything about it. Like, it’s so hard to explain to people that I’m autistic, my brain doesn’t work the same way yours does and that I can’t do anything about it without sounding like I’m coming up with excuses.

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u/Haebak Mar 18 '22

I'm usually very straightforward with it because if you tiptoe around it like you're ashamed, it does sound like an excuse. Also, explain exactly what you need and why. For example, the other day I went to the dentist and he told me I needed anesthesia for a procedure. I told him "I'm autistic, so I need a couple of days to prepare myself mentally for the needle. Tell me when are we going to do that procedure so I can come ready". We agreed to do it in three weeks and he was very understanding and respectful, so now I trust him more.

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u/Jokers_Testikles Mar 18 '22

I'd like to point out that public schools in the USA do exactly what you say we shouldn't do and that it has personally made me feel actively dumber.

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u/mercurialpolyglot Mar 17 '22

As someone with ADHD, I’m interested. The explanation in Percy Jackson that ADHD helped with focus in battle always stuck with me, namely the idea that ADHD helped in some way historically that has since become obsolete in modern civilian society.

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u/breakeven_not Mar 17 '22

I have ADHD as well. It wasn't diagnosed when I was young and I had a tough childhood. I was puhished for my inability to focus, inability to stand still, my inability to wait for somebody to finish a statement (because I already finished it in my mind) so I leanrd to ... adapt to people around me. I use my hyperfocus as a superpower, I am able to resolve problems I have at work in my sleep and sometimes I have so much energy I need just a few hours of sleep.

Impulsivity is still a problem, sometimes I resolve things so quickly and sloppy and make stupid mistakes. But working in it, there are tests and there is pair programming, so it has been working fine so far.

Sometime I have trouble in meetings when other peoplr are talking, because my mind wonders to unfinished work or anything else really.

I'm inclined to believe my ADHD is not a disorder, but an adaptation. I came from nothing, maybe I am not a billionaire, but I have a life standard way higher than I ever dreamed of.

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u/queeroctopus Mar 18 '22

Depression, just like cancer, is not a single disease.

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u/StElmoFlash Mar 18 '22

Whether the supposed alien body from 1947 was real or not, the idea of designing smaller humans to explore the cosmos makes some real sense.

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u/hononononoh Mar 17 '22 Silver Gold Helpful

The Crespi-Badcock Hypothesis: that autism and schizophrenia are exactly opposite neurological divergences, which develop epigenetically in the womb in response to entirely opposite environmental stressors — a world of excess and a world of scarcity, respectively — and therefore are never comorbid in the same individual.

My extrapolation of Crespi-Badcock is that autism spectrum disorder is really a first world problem in the truest sense. It is rapidly increasing in the developed world, but not the developing world, because compared to the environment in which humans evolved, today's first world embryos receive a stream of resources and conditions indicating it will want for nothing. If the developing human does not anticipate needing the usually large amount of brain resources devoted to reading other people in order to survive, this frees up these resources for understanding systems. Essentially, a person on the autism spectrum is a person whose developing brain received the consistent message that they can make it on their own without relying on many other people, and that their brainpower is better devoted to understanding lots of different and new systems to great detail, so that they can make it on their own without relying on many other people.

Schizophrenia, meanwhile, is largely a disease of the developing world, and of urban slums worldwide. The brain that's able to become schizophrenic, meanwhile, receives a consistent message during development that it's entering a world of great scarcity and insecurity, and being attuned to other people and their needs and what they communicate will be absolutely indispensable to their survival. The kickstarting event for the first psychotic break is usually some sort of forceful rejection or other form of psychologically traumatic social interaction, in the late teens or early 20s for men, and 30s for women.

Autistic patients miss messages from other people that are indeed there. Schizophrenic patients see messages from other people that aren't actually there. Hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity to social cues, respectively.

Source: I am an independent general practice physician with a strong interest in psychiatry / behavioral health, who is himself on the autism spectrum, and attracts largely patients who are on the autism spectrum.

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u/ravenschneid Mar 17 '22 edited Mar 17 '22

Nice contribution

Counterpoint: Don't you think that autism is under reported in the developing world because of its wide spectrum (vs. Schizophrenia where the symptoms of hallucinations are extreme and easily diagnosed)?

Autism in the developing world may be dismissed as the person being punctual, serious, keeps it to himself, well organized, etc. Much of the developing world is made up of authoritarian institutions and the academia reinforces routine, order, minimum social interaction & following orders, and so on. What is considered "autism" in the West may be perceived as normal and sometimes, a cheered trait. Does the definition of Autism apply to the rest of the world? It is a western definition.

As for Schizophrenia, it's interesting how people have religious hallucinations and delusions and at the same time, being religious has a positive impact on schizophrenic treatment. Many developing world communities are more religious than their counterparts in the West. I wonder how much that plays a role in developing schizophrenia.

Also there is something to be said re. Western psychiatry being globalized and imposing its definitions to different parts of the world (which have separate norms & perceptions); which may come across a separate argument (however linked considering if one wants to discuss Autism and contrast the 2 worlds and apply the same definitions).

After all, most psychiatric illnesses are subjective and not proven in labs. The debate between DSM IV & V writers proved this where the traditionalists argued that ADHD diagnostic criteria is widened, leading to over diagnosis. Looking at the developing world with the western lens and books would lead to biases, as there is more subjectivity in this field.

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u/Brawndo91 Mar 17 '22

I'm not any kind of scientist, but what you described about under-diagnosing autism in the developing world could also be said of the developed world not terribly long ago. It's only been in the last 25 years or so that a spectrum has been recognized and only the more severe forms of autism were diagnosed. I'm not that old, but even when I was a kid, an autistic person was someone who was likely non-verbal or close to it, and unable to care for themself. I remember even my middle school science book describing autism in somewhat extreme terms.

That's all to say that I think you're right about underdiagnosis in the developing world. Which could be due to lack of knowledge (behind on the science), lack of resources (nobody to go to find out if a child is autistic), or most likely lack of necessity to figure out why one's child is a little different than the others because the parent is more concerned with just feeding them.

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u/LRonzhubbby Mar 17 '22

Agreed. I’m American but spent 3 years living and working in a lower class Brazilian neighborhood when I was younger. There were absolutely autistic youth and adults and people with other forms of neurodivergence in the neighborhood.

But their families and neighbors just said they were “slow” or “different” and didn’t particularly worry about it or think to bring them to a specialist.

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u/[deleted] Mar 17 '22

Yes, this. My family is Mexican from both sides, and we still know people that don't seek help when their child is showing symptoms of something. My Mom's friend (also Latino) got her preschooler kicked out of 2 schools. I overheard their conversation one time and I said to my Mom "if they are kicking out such a small child, the kid has issues." The child's mom really made it sound like everyone else just sucked at their jobs.

My sisters's cousin apparently still doesn't speak (a six year old). My Mom asked their parents if they had tried going to a specialist, because a couple of my cousins had some issues. The speech specialist was able to get them on track and now have no issues speaking two languages. Long story short, they pulled the "everyone in our family speaks late. It's normal." My Mom was like "my two kids are related to you, and they spoke super early and in two languages. I don't see the correlation." LOL

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u/OneRedHen Mar 17 '22 Helpful

All really interesting!

Off your point about religion and schizophrenia, I recall hearing that it was found that hallucinations in western cultures tended to be much more aggressive and hostile than those in (I believe it was) underdeveloped, more isolated communities of the world. And the hallucinations in those communities were often welcomed and seen as religious and positive experiences. The theory was that culture and environment influences the kinds of hallucinations that individuals with schizophrenia have.

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u/Solesaver Mar 17 '22

Hallucinations, like dreams, are the brain trying to make sense of non-sensical input. There is a very strong correlational argument that you see/hear what you expect to see/hear. There have been highly successful therapies to retrain schizophrenics to expect benevolent hallucinations.

Western culture/religion overwhelmingly taught its people that the only spirits that would be talking to you are demons trying to lead you astray. Some individuals did manage to develop a "guardian angel" though. Cultures with any amount of ancestor reverence or nature spirits are more likely to interpret hallucinations as benevolent guides. Though those cultures are not without their own demons.

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u/Curious-Outcome-5819 Mar 17 '22 Silver Eureka!

My friend worked as a mental health nurse for years and now as a counselor (BSc Psychology and Msc Neuroscience), and according to him autism and schizophrenia have a higher than average comorbidity. He has treated very many patients like this and a quick google of the scientific literature seems to at least support if not confirm this hypothesis.

Genuinely curious - how do you argue they cannot be comorbid if there are at least anecdotally lots of verifiable examples?

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u/s_p_o_c_k Mar 18 '22

I agree. I posted a few sources about this in another comment. Also, the Wikipedia page of the hypothesis has a looong list of issues with the scientific validity of it.

“While the hypothesis has found some attention in popular science, it lacks scientific backing.[1][2] It has also been attacked as unfalsifiable, exaggerated, and overly broad.[3] Specific issues for the hypothesis include that the predictions it makes about genetic disorders are falsified, that the effects of the two disorders on empathy and mentalizing are contrary to Crespi and Badcock's model, and that many neuroimaging findings fail to support the hypothesis.”

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imprinted_brain_hypothesis

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u/s_p_o_c_k Mar 17 '22

I know someone who has been diagnosed with both autism and schizophrenia.

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u/ABELLEXOXO Mar 17 '22

Hello. I'm Schizophrenic and am being tested for Autism soon. I find this specific thread to be a lot of missed connections.

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u/maybe_little_pinch Mar 18 '22

I work in the behavioral health field and a lot of the schizophrenic patients we see have a fair amount of overlap with the autism spectrum. Less so the other way, except in the few cases of severe low functioning autism that I've seen.

OP's theory is interesting but it almost feels liiiiike... bias.

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